The inverse problem of the reconstruction of the effective source height and the strength from observed data of ground-level pollutant concentration is considered by solving the semiempirical equation of turbulent diffusion. Hanna’s parametrization under conditions of the intensive exchange is used to describe the vertical profile of the eddy diffusivity in the atmospheric boundary layer. The vertical profile of the wind velocity in the surface layer was approximated by logarithm function of the height and higher this layer the wind speed was taken equal to the constant. The efficient method for solving the inverse problem and numerical construction of optimal observation design is suggested. This method is based on the utilization of the dual representation of linear functionals dependent on concentration by way of solutions of the direct and adjoint problems. The proposed model of the observation design and the estimation of the source parameters was verified on the measured data of SO2 concentrations obtained around the Dickerson power station. Comparison of the experimental parameters with corresponding values estimated by the proposed model shows their satisfactory agreement.